The third element is the balance between the hormone insulin and growth hormone. People with the highest levels of the growth hormone somatotrophin (STH) live the longest.
Insulin, produced in the pancreas, is secreted to regulate the rate at which the body utilizes carbohydrates. When we consume carbohydrates (sugars and starches), insulin is released to lower the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin also promotes the use of glucose as an energy source for the body, promotes the storage of fat and encourages the conversion of proteins to fat for storage.
Produced in the pituitary gland, STH increases the rate of protein synthesis, affects the metabolism of sodium, potassium and calcium and influences the metabolism of carbohydrates. The purpose of STH is to convert the body's available energy into bone, muscle and tissue growth.
When we are young, our bodies have a low ratio of insulin to STH so we are healthier, leaner, full of energy-and growing. The insulin encourages the body to store carbohydrates as fat while STH stimulates the burning of that fat.
Due to age and inactivity, stored carbohydrates accumulate in the form of fat. Because we are now full-grown, the hypothalamus tells the pituitary gland to release less and less STH. This causes the pancreas to produce more insulin in order to maintain proper blood sugar levels. The visible result of this hormonal imbalance is weight gain. The chronic symptoms of this imbalance is hypoglycemia. If not corrected, diabetes is the end result.
There are no surgeries that can be performed nor drugs that can be taken to maintain optimal levels of both insulin and STH.